News

August 10, 2010

Final Air Toxics Standards For Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines

ACTION

  • On August 10, 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a final rule that will reduce emissions of toxic air pollutants from existing gas-fired stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines (RICE). These engines also are known as spark ignition (SI) engines.
  • Industrial facilities such as power plants and chemical and manufacturing plants use these engines to generate electricity for compressors and pumps. These engines are used in the oil and gas industry, both for production and transport by pipeline. They also are used in emergencies to produce electricity to pump water for flood and fire control.
  • Toxic air pollutants, also known as hazardous air pollutants or air toxics, are those pollutants known or suspected of causing cancer and other serious health effects.
  • This final rule applies to stationary SI engines that meet specific siting, age and size criteria. It will control emissions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methanol, benzene, and other air toxics from SI engines:
    • used at area sources of air toxics emissions and constructed or reconstructed before June 12, 2006,
    • used at major sources of air toxics emissions, have a site rating of less than or equal to 500 horsepower (HP), and constructed or reconstructed before June 12, 2006.
  • Operators of existing stationary SI engines will be required to:
    • Install emissions control equipment that would limit air toxics emissions for the
      following engines:
      • stationary non-emergency four stroke lean burn (4SLB) engines with a site rating between 100 HP and 500 HP and located at a major source of HAP emissions, and
      • stationary non-emergency four stroke rich burn (4SRB) and 4SLB engines with a site rating greater than 500 HP and located at an area source of HAP emissions;
    • Perform work or management practices for the engines that are not required to meet numeric emission limits; and
    • Perform emissions tests to demonstrate engine performance and compliance with rule requirements for engines that are subject to numeric emission limitations.

BENEFITS AND COSTS

  • EPA estimates that more than 330,000 of these engines generate electricity and power 2 equipment at industrial, agricultural, oil and gas production, and other facilities.
  • When this rule is fully implemented in 2013, EPA estimates that emissions from these SI engines will drop by approximately:
    • 6,000 tons per year (tpy) of air toxics,
    • 96,000 tpy of nitrogen oxides,
    • 109,000 tpy of carbon monoxide, and
    • 31,000 tpy of volatile organic compounds
  • These emissions reductions will lead to significant annual health benefits. In 2013, this
    rule will protect public health from exposure to fine particles by avoiding:
    • 17 to 44 premature deaths,
    • 12 cases of chronic bronchitis,
    • 33 nonfatal heart attacks,
    • 26 hospital and emergency room visits,
    • 29 cases of acute bronchitis,
    • 2,400 days when people miss work,
    • 310 cases of aggravated asthma, and
    • 14,000 minor restricted activity days.
  • EPA estimates that the value of the benefits associated with reduced exposure to fine particles are $510 million to $1.2 billion in the year 2013. EPA did not monetize the benefits associated with reducing exposure to air toxics or other air pollutants, ecosystem effects, or visibility impairment.
  • EPA estimates the total national capital cost for the final rule to be approximately $383 million in 2013, with a total national annual compliance cost of $253 million in 2013. The annual compliance cost includes control device operation and maintenance as well as monitoring, recordkeeping, reporting, and performance testing.
  • EPA estimates that price and output changes for production from affected industries in 2013 should be less than 1 percent for most affected output.
  • EPA calculated the costs and benefits of this rule based on the value of a dollar in 2009. particles are $510 million to $1.2 billion in the year 2013. EPA did not monetize the benefits associated with reducing exposure to air toxics or other air pollutants, ecosystem effects, or visibility impairment.
  • EPA estimates the total national capital cost for the final rule to be approximately $383 million in 2013, with a total national annual compliance cost of $253 million in 2013. The annual compliance cost includes control device operation and maintenance as well as monitoring, recordkeeping, reporting, and performance testing.
  • EPA estimates that price and output changes for production from affected industries in 2013 should be less than 1 percent for most affected output.
  • EPA calculated the costs and benefits of this rule based on the value of a dollar in 2009.

Client Portal

Username:

Password:

New Client? Request Access Now >>